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Wednesday, May 8

Tuesday, May 7

  1. page Issues In OC edited ... By Ahmad Malik and Antonello Pisanelli Here we discuss current hot issues in OC. OC and beh…
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    By Ahmad Malik and Antonello Pisanelli
    Here we discuss current hot issues in OC.
    OC and behaviourLeadership
    OC in Multinational and knowledge sharing
    The extent to which OC improves or hinders performance
    The extent to which OC can be managed
    Organizational problems linked to OC
    OC and people's issues
    Multicultural Organizations
    Cultural Compatibility Issues
    in process improvement (sounds like change management?)Mergers & Acquisitions
    OC and marketing/ business performanceChange Management
    Culture and Knowledge Sharing

    OC and Leadership
    CEO Personality, Leadership, and Organizational Culture
    (view changes)
    1:40 pm

Monday, May 6

  1. page Studies edited ... By Theresa Fadero {http://www.laynetworks.com/images/dimensions-of-organizationa.gif} 1. …
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    By Theresa Fadero
    {http://www.laynetworks.com/images/dimensions-of-organizationa.gif}
    1.Organizational Culture and Information Systems
    Organizational Culture and the Bottom Line
    The Assessment of Organisational Culture: A Methodological Study
    1. Organizational Culture and Information Systems
    Claver et al. 2001 analyzes how organizational culture influences information systems (IS/IT). Investing money on IT/IS is not enough for them to generate positive results for a firm, the human component within IS is crucial to IS success. This human component is essentially qualitative, organizational behaviour. They differentiate between informational and informatic cultures and organizational culture and conclude that the notions of informational and informatic cultures mainly account for the values shared by corporate members concerning IT/IS. Their analysis of possibilities shows that an informational culture is the one that allows firms to best profit from IT/IS. They suggest a need for increased research studies on how actions may be taken on both IS and organizational culture, so that they may be a source of competitive advantage and everything this entails. (Claver et al. 2001)
    {http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1610140301001.png}
    Figure: Influence Among IT/IS and Organizational Culture (Claver et al., 2001)
    {http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1610140301002.png}
    The performance of information systems through organizational culture (Claver et al., 2001)
    Jackson (2011) in his studies on organizational culture and IS/IT adoption confirms the importance of organizational in the success or failure of IS adoption. He suggests IS culture can be enhanced by combining theoretical approaches and the three perceptions of culture- integration, differentiation and fragmentation. These can offer a more penetrating account of how organizational culture influences IS adoption.
    2.
    Organizational Culture
    In Miller Consultants case study on XYZ company, the owners of XYZ suspected the OC and leadership styles may be the cause of its problems. The study recognised a number of factors that contributed to XYZ problems among these are: employees do not feel part of the company; employees were fearful and overwhelmed; employees believed that their main responsibility was to do as they were told; the company was inconsistent in espoused values and rewards; the company suffered form an atmosphere of mistrust; the leadership styles of the new management team clashed with the older established culture; and the adversarial relationship between the two owners contributed to a “confused” culture. The company’s adoption of a plan to address its cultural issues convinced the management that culture which is created in a company is critical to its financial success and achievability of its goals. It is evident from this study that factors that are taken for granted contribute to the making of an organization’s culture. Such factors as:
    Physical layout of the plant and the offices
    ...
    Who had access to what information
    Thorough and useful assessments of an organization's culture generally require the efforts of those who are inside of the culture and live it every day partnered with the more objective perceptions and observations of someone outside of the culture. The case study was conducted by ‘outsiders’ to XYZ company which confirms the fact that outsiders are more likely to observe things that insiders take for granted. This shows the degree of importance of OC, it serves as the mirror through which the outsiders view and judge a company.
    2.3. The Assessment
    Reiman and Oedewald 2002 examines the assessment and development of organisational culture in complex organisations using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Determining the culture prevailing in a company at some moment in time requires the study of the company’s values, practices, artefacts and of the core task defined by them. By comparing these elements an attempt is made to clarify the underlying assumptions prevailing in a company. Core-task analysis, on the other hand, helps to determine the main content of work and the critical demands it sets for working practices.
    Vicente (1999) sets three criteria for the effectiveness of a sociotechnical system. According to his definition, an effective sociotechnical system is safe, productive and healthy. The culture should support the achievement of all these objectives. Thus new kinds of methods, taking into account the overall objective of the organisation, are needed to assess a culture appropriately. By the term organisational culture is meant values, norms and underlying assumptions which arise over time during a company’s history and which affect all of a company’s operations. All of these may also have an influence on a company’s safety, productivity and well-being (Reiman 2001a, 2001b, Oedewald et al. 2001, Reiman & Norros 2002).
    ...
    Organisational culture is a phenomenon that is difficult to measure, and the selection of criteria used to ascertain its effectiveness is not unambiguous. (Reiman and Oedewald 2002) For a better understanding of their study, Reiman and Oedewald 2002 analyzes Schein 1992 three layers of organizational culture as follow:
    The first cultural level consists of various quality systems as well as information systems and databases connected with safety and the control/monitoring of operations (cf. Reason 1997). Similarly, cultural artefacts can be considered to include accident statistics, sick leave and corresponding indicators, which, correctly interpreted, can be used to form conclusions about the deeper characteristics of an organisation’s culture. This interpretation requires effective and diverse research methods and an understanding of the internal dynamics of the culture.
    ...
    1985, 1992).
    Underlying
    Underlying assumptions relate
    {http://www.joe.org/joe/2004april/images/a7-fig1.gif}
    Figure 1 Schein’s Model of Organizational Culture
    ...
    References:
    Alvesson, M. & Berg, P.O. (1992). Corporate Culture and Organizational Symbolism.
    Alvesson, M. & Berg, P.O. (1992). Corporate Culture and Organizational Symbolism.
    Claver Enrique, Llopis Juan and González M. Reyes (2001) The Performance of Information Systems Through Organizational Culture [Online]. Information Technology and People, Vol. 14, Issue 3, pp 247-260. Retrieved from: http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/1655/4/The_performance_of_information_systems.pdf.

    Collins, D. (1998). Organizational Change: Sociological Perspectives. London: Routledge.
    Engestrom, Y. (1998). Kehittava tyontutkimus. Perusteita, tuloksia ja haasteita. Helsinki: Edita. [In Finnish]
    ...
    Hatch, M.J. (1993). The Dynamics of Organizational Culture. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 657-693.
    Hogg, M.A. & Abrams, D. (1988). Social Identifications. A Social Psychology of Intergroup relations and Group Processes. London: Routledge.
    Jackson, Stephen (2011) Organizational culture and information systems adoption: A three-perspective approach [Online]. Information and Organization Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 2, April 2011, pp 57-83. Retrieved from: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1982731
    Kunda, G. (1992). Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-Tech Corporation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Levi, D. (2001). Group Dynamics for Teams. Thousand Oaks: Sage
    (view changes)
    4:21 pm
  2. page Historical Perspective on OC edited ... Peters and Waterman’s (1982) In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best Run Companie…
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    Peters and Waterman’s (1982) In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best Run Companies
    The first two books suggested that Japanese business success could be attributed in large part to Japanese corporate culture. All four books suggested that corporate culture was key to organizational performance and that corporate culture could be managed to improve a company’s competitive advantage. They provided pragmatic prescriptions to American business leaders desperate for answers to help them remain successful in the face of increasing Japanese competition. These books were bestsellers; the last out sold all other non-fiction books for the year. Although the concept of organizational culture was popularized in the early 1980s, its roots can be traced back to the early human relations view of organizations that originated in the 1940s. Human relations theorists viewed the informal, nonmaterial, interpersonal, and moral bases of cooperation and commitment as perhaps more important than the formal, material, and instrumental controls stressed by the rational system theorists. The human relations perspective drew its inspiration from even earlier anthropological and sociological work on culture associated with groups and societies (see Geertz 1973; Mead 1934; Durkheim 1964; Weber 1947, 1958).
    ...
    complex anthropological
    approach
    approach was necessary
    The field of organizational behaviour and the related discipline of management science began investigating organizations in terms of culture as early as the 1930s. The final phase of the famous Hawthorne studies at the Western Electric Company marked the first systematic attempt to use a concept of culture to understand the work environment. While an important step forward in qualitative research, the investigation was rather blunt and the understanding of organizational culture remained fairly primitive during the following decades. Most mid-century attempts at understanding were conducted by scholars steeped in quantitative psychology and sociology, though by the 1970s researchers more explicitly and emphatically appropriated the theories and methods of anthropology. The late-century upsurge of interest in organizational culture is credited largely to the economic conditions of the 1970s when international competition had heightened and more foreign companies were operating factories in the United States. Specifically, the success of the Japanese in many industries sparked curiosity about whether their differing corporate values, attitudes, and behaviours were responsible for their often superior performance. (Tharp 2009)
    The 1982 publication of Peters & Wasserman’s In Search of Excellence stirred both popular and professional interest through its suggestion that organizations with strong cultures were more effective. Corporate culture was offered as an asset that could be managed to improve business performance. Since the early 1980s, academic and applied exploration of organizational culture has steadily increased and even now there is little indication of abatement as changes in data management, work organization, values, lifestyles, demographics, knowledge-intensive work, outsourcing, and a host of other social, economic, and technological factors continue to impact the relationship between organizations, workers, and the workplace. (Tharp 2009)
    (view changes)
    2:03 pm
  3. page Definition of OC edited Back to Analysis. Definitions of culture can be tricky, and when 'Organisation' is placed in front…
    Back to Analysis.
    Definitions of culture can be tricky, and when 'Organisation' is placed in front, it can become even more so. This page shows some of the definitions of 'Culture' and 'Organisational Culture' in the literature. The models themselves are discussed elsewhere in the analysis.
    'Culture'Definitions of 'Culture'
    Oxford English Dictionary (2004)
    "The distinctive ideas, customs, social behaviour, products, or way of life of a particular nation, society, people of period. Hence: a society or group characterised by such customs".
    ...
    Grant et al. (2010, p. 252)
    "The combination of values, norms, beliefs and assumptions people commonly share within a community, take for granted and use to shape how they think and act is generally referred to as ‘culture’".
    'OrganisationalDefinitions of 'Organisational Culture'
    Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture)
    "Organisational culture is the collective behavior of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions. Culture includes the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, symbols, beliefs and habits. It is also the pattern of such collective behaviors and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling. Organizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders.
    Ravasi and Schultz (2006) state that organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. At the same time although a company may have "own unique culture", in larger organizations, there is a diverse and sometimes conflicting cultures that co-exist due to different characteristics of the management team. The organizational culture may also have negative and positive aspects. Schein (2009), Deal & Kennedy (2000), Kotter (1992) and many others state that organizations often have very differing cultures as well as subcultures."
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    Kennedy (1982)
    "The way things get done around here."
    Willmott (1993, p. 516)
    (view changes)
    1:19 pm
  4. page Definition of OC edited ... Definitions of culture can be tricky, and when 'Organisation' is placed in front, it can becom…
    ...
    Definitions of culture can be tricky, and when 'Organisation' is placed in front, it can become even more so. This page shows some of the definitions of 'Culture' and 'Organisational Culture' in the literature. The models themselves are discussed elsewhere in the analysis.
    'Culture'
    Oxford English Dictionary (2004)
    "The distinctive ideas, customs, social behaviour, products, or way of life of a particular nation, society, people of period. Hence: a society or group characterised by such customs".

    Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture)
    "Culture is a modern concept based on a term first used in classical antiquity by the Roman orator, Cicero: "cultura animi". The term "culture" appeared first in its current sense in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, to connote a process of cultivation or improvement, as inagriculture or horticulture. In the 19th century, the term developed to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals. In the mid-19th century, some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity. For the German nonpositivist sociologist Georg Simmel, culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history".
    (view changes)
    1:17 pm
  5. page National and Societal Cultural Infuences edited ... At the opposite end of the scale, I have often had difficulties getting people to say 'no' to …
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    At the opposite end of the scale, I have often had difficulties getting people to say 'no' to me when working in India with subordinates. It got so bad I actively tried to phrase questions so people would have to say 'no'. It still didn't work. This is an example of 'power distance' (and also perhaps other Indian cultural values: 'yes' does not mean 'yes' either....).
    Here in the UK, I think people tend to have a relatively low uncertainty-avoidance index, that is, they can tolerate ambiguity quite well. Various colleagues from abroad have mentioned on more than one occasion how they sometimes do not know they have been 'teased' or 'chastised' until some time later. Stereotypical British understatement is a kind of ambiguity to those not used to it.
    An example of societal factors in organisational culture is the recent change imposed by Marissa Meyer of Yahoo: she made people start working in the office again instead of working from home. The ability to work from home has already become commonplace and therefore embedded in organisational culture, at least in certain 'professional cultures' such as high-tech. So the imposed change for Yahoo is a fundamental one. The decision might also have been made for other reasons (e.g. to wilfully get people to resign) but the impact on organisational culture will be substantial (and maybe for the good!)
    If anyone has any analagous examples of their own, please feel free to add them in the discussion on this page.
    Media
    (view changes)
    1:14 pm
  6. msg Feedback message posted Feedback Hi Team: I have made the Wiki public, so we are ready to go! Many thanks for all your contributions…
    Feedback
    Hi Team: I have made the Wiki public, so we are ready to go! Many thanks for all your contributions, there may still be some time for last minute changes, so feel free, but we are basically 'live' :)
    1:05 pm
  7. page Video Page edited ... An interview with Hofstede, "the professor at large". Some less serious examples ar…
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    An interview with Hofstede, "the professor at large".
    Some less serious examples are also out there:
    http://youtu.be/i7_R921f1OA
    (view changes)
    1:01 pm
  8. msg Conclusions message posted Conclusions Post your thoughts on conclusions here.
    Conclusions
    Post your thoughts on conclusions here.
    12:50 pm

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